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The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Article 8 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights expresses this principle as follows:- "Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law." Universal Declaration of HumanRights, G.A. Res. 217A, art. 8, U.N. GAOR, 3d Sess., 1st plen. Ntg,m U.N.Doc. A/810 (Dec. 12, 1948).

All human beings are born with equal and inalienable rights and fundamental freedoms.

The United Nations is committed to upholding, promoting and protecting the human rights of every individual. This commitment stems from the United Nations Charter, which reaffirms the faith of the peoples of the world in fundamental human rights and in the dignity and worth of the human person.

In the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the United Nations has stated in clear and simple terms the rights which belong equally to every person.

These rights belong to you.

They are your rights. Familiarize yourself with them. Help to promote and defend them for yourself as well as for your fellow human beings.

Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world

Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,

Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,

Whereas it is essential to promote the devel¬opment of friendly relations between nations,

Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dig¬nity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,

Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in cooperation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,

Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,

Now, therefore,

The General Assembly

Proclaims this Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achieve¬ment for all eoples and all nations, to the end that every ndividual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teach¬ing and ducation to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progres¬sive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective rec¬ognition and bservance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the eoples of erritories under their jurisdiction.


The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Download the full text of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (pdf size:97.6 kb)

Legal Instruments:-

The following are some of the major international legal instruments of relevance adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations:-

Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law.

The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court
The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court adopted at Rome on 17 July 1998, in force on 1 July 2002, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 2187, No. 38544, Depositary: Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Download the full text of Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (pdf size:506 kb)

The Kyoto Protocol
The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005.
Download the full text of the Kyoto Protocol (pdf size:74.9 kb)

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Prospects:- International human rights treaties and instruments provide that victims of international crimes have the right to seek and obtain effective remedies for the violation of their rights. In honouring the victims’ right to benefit from remedies and reparation, the international community keeps faith with the plight of victims, survivors and future human generations and reaffirms international law in the field...International Courts and Tribunals


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